Philip Milton Roth was born in Newark, New Jersey, March 19, 1933. He began publishing short stories in 1956. His first book, Goodbye, Columbus (1959) won the National Book Award, and since then he has published more than twenty-two books. In the 1990s, Roth won the National Book Critics Circle Award for Patrimony (1991), the PEN/Faulkner Award for Operation Shylock (1993), and the National Book Award for Sabbath's Theater (1995). American Pastoral (1997) and I Married a Communist (1998), the first two volumes of the American's trilogy that culminates in The Human Stain received the Pulitzer Prize and many others.