The comic strip Peanuts by Charles M. Schulz is first published in seven US newspapers in 1950. Elizabeth II becomes Queen of England in 1952. In 1953 Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay climb Mount Everest, Hugh Hefner published the first issue of Playboy. In 1955 Disneyland opens, in California. The first edition of Jack Kerouac's On the Road goes on sale in 1957, two years before the Barbie doll debuts.